Cairo

Cairo

 

Cairo (ˈkaɪroʊ/ kye-roh; Arabic: القاهرة al-Qāhira, literally "The Vanquisher" or "The Conqueror"), is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Located near the Nile Delta, it was founded in 969 AD. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life. Cairo was founded by the Fatimid dynasty in the 10th century AD.; but the land composing the present-day city was the site of national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo is also associated with Ancient Egypt due to its proximity to the ancient cities of Memphis, Giza and Fustat which are nearby to the Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza.

Egyptians today often refer to Cairo as Mar (Arabic: مصر), the Arabic pronunciation of the name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's continued role in Egyptian influence. Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Arab World, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, al-Azhar University. Many international media, businesses, and organizations have regional headquarters in the city, and the Arab League has had its headquarters in Cairo for most of its existence.

With a population of 6.76 million spread over 453 square kilometers (175 sq mi), Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt. With an additional ten million inhabitants just outside the city, Cairo resides at the centre of the largest metropolitan area in Africa and the eleventh-largest urban area in the world Cairo, like many other mega-cities, suffers from high levels of pollution and traffic, but its metro – one of only two metros on the African continent (the other one being the Algiers Metro) also ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world,[7] with over 700 million passenger rides annually. The economy of Cairo was ranked first in the Middle East, and 43rd globally by Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index.

 

Cairo's Tahrir Square was the focal point of the2011 Egyptian Revolution against former president Hosni Mubarak. Over 2 million protesters at Cairo's Tahrir square. More than 50,000 protesters first occupied the square on 25 January, during which the area's wireless services were reported to be impaired. In the following days Tahrir Square continued to be the primary destination for protests in Cairo as it took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and is still continuing as of February 2012. The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labor strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters, with at least 846 people killed and 6,000 injured. The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president. On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Mubarak resigned from office.   

Egypt

egypt

Egypt enjoys a distinguished geographical location at the juncture of the ancient world continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. It has always been a place of inter-civilization reactivation between the East and the West as well as the North and the South. Egypt was also the crossing road of the heavenly religions of the world.

The Arab Republic of Egypt is located in the north-eastern corner of Africa and south-western Asia. It is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Palestine and Israel, on the south by Sudan, and on the west by Libya. 

The country is about 1. 085 km from north to south and about 1. 255 km from east to west. It has a total area of 1. 001450 km2.

Location:                                                                                       

Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula 

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E 
Border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Palestine 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1, 273 km. 
Elevation extremes:    

-lowest point: Qattara Depression 436 m

-highest point: Mount Catherine 2, 629 m 

-Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead and zinc.   

Egypt is 50 feet below sea level. Some important cities, towns, and places in Egypt are Cairo (the capital), Giza, Memphis, Thebes, Alexandria, Sohag, Suez Canal, Abu Simbel, Sinai Peninsula, and Rosetta.

The Nile Delta is the only delta in Egypt and is 100 miles long and 155 miles wide. It is in the shape of a triangle. There are 5 important oases in Egypt and they are all located in the Libyan Desert. They are the Farafrah, Bahriah, Dakhla, Kharijah, and the Siwah oases.The area of Egypt is 386, 662 square miles. The distances from east to west are 770 miles and from north to south it is 675 miles.

There are no forests in but there are date palms and citrus groves. Papyrus plants grow only near the Nile.   

 "Egypt is the gift of the River Nile", said Herodotus, the great Greek historian, on his only visit to Egypt. There is no better way to trace the course of Egyptian history than to follow the course of the Nile.

The Nile River is the longest river in the world, stretching for 4,187 miles. The Nile flows from south to north and is formed by three major tributaries: the White Nile, the Blue Nile and the Atbara.

The Blue Nile has its source in the highlands of the African country of Ethiopia, by Lake Tana. The runoff from spring rain and melting snow caused the annual summer flood of the Nile that the Egyptians depended on for water to irrigate their crops, and deposit fertile top soil.

Egyptian economy is the most varied of the Middle East economies, where sectors of tourism, agriculture, industry and service contribute at almost equal rates in the national production. Consequently, Egypt s economy is picking up development at increasing rates, based on a climate luring investments represented in proper legislation, convenient policy, internal stability, trade and market liberalization. This is besides what Egypt possesses of solid infrastructure of transportation, communication, energy sources, skillful manpower, modern industrial communities, banking system and stock market.

Egypt has been always a country of tourism where people used to visit and see its antiquities dating back to the various eras and civilizations. In the recreational tourism domain, there are scores ofunique tourist destinations such as Sharm -el-Sheikh, Hurghada, Safaga and others. Moreover, Egypt is renowned for therapeutically and environmental tourism as well as other kinds such as Safari, conferences and sports.

The Islamic era in Egypt was generally the golden age for arts and architecture. The Pharaonic Era dates back to 3000 years B.C. till Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 323 B.C. During the Pharaonic Era, Egypt witnessed many aspects of progress and renaissance in all fields. Christianity entered Egypt in the half of the first century A.D. In 30 BC, Egypt was conquered by the Romans and was therefore rendered merely a province in their empire. However, due to its unique geographical position,